Addresses and payment IDs

The first, original address of the wallet is usually known as the master address. All others are just subaddresses, even if they represent a separate account within the wallet.

Monero addresses are base58-encoded strings. You may disassemble each of them using the excellent address analysis tool from luigi1111.

While the ordinary string representation is perfectly valid to use, you may want to use validation and other features provided by the monero.address package.

Address validation and instatination

The function monero.address.address() will recognize and validate Monero address, returning an instance that provides additional functionality.

The following example uses addresses from the wallet we have generated in the previous chapter.

Let’s start with the master address:

In [1]: from monero.address import address

In [2]: a = address('A2GmyHHJ9jtUhPiwoAbR2tXU9LJu2U6fJjcsv3rxgkVRWU6tEYcn6C1NBc7wqCv5V7NW3zeYuzKf6RGGgZTFTpVC4QxAiAX')

In [3]: a.is_testnet()
Out[3]: True

In [4]: a.spend_key()
Out[4]: 'f0481b63cb937fa5960529247ebf6db627ff1b0bb88de9feccc3c504c16aa4b0'

In [5]: a.view_key()
Out[5]: '2c5ba76d22e48a7ea4ddabea3cce66808ba0cc91265371910f893962e977af1e'

In [6]: type(a)
Out[6]: monero.address.Address

We may use a subaddress too:

In [7]: b = address('BenuGf8eyVhjZwdcxEJY1MHrUfqHjPvE3d7Pi4XY5vQz53VnVpB38bCBsf8AS5rJuZhuYrqdG9URc2eFoCNPwLXtLENT4R7')

In [8]: b.is_testnet()
Out[8]: True

In [9]: b.spend_key()
Out[9]: 'ae7e136f46f618fe7f4a6b323ed60864c20070bf110978d7e3868686d5677318'

In [10]: b.view_key()
Out[10]: '2bf801cdaf3a8b41020098a6d5e194f48fa62129fe9d8f09d19fee9260665baa'

In [11]: type(b)
Out[11]: monero.address.SubAddress

These two classes, Address and SubAddress have similar functionality but one significant difference. Only the former may form integrated address.

Generating subaddresses

It is possible to get subaddresses in two ways:

  1. Creating them in the wallet file by calling .new_address() on Account or Wallet instance. In properly synced wallet this will return an address that is guaranteed to be fresh and unused. It is the right way if you plan to use one-time addresses to identify payments or to improve your privacy by avoiding address reuse.
  2. Requesting arbitrary subaddress by calling Wallet.get_address(major, minor) where major is the account index and minor is the index of the address within an account. Addresses obtained this way are not guaranteed to be fresh and will not be saved as already generated within the wallet file. (Watch out for unintentional address reuse!)

Payment IDs and integrated addresses

Each Monero transaction may carry a payment ID. It is a 64 or 256-bit long number that carries additional information between parties. For example, a merchant can generate a payment ID for each order, or an exchange can assign one to each user. The customer/user would then attach the ID to the transaction, so the site operator would know what is the purpose of incoming payment.

A short, 64-bit payment ID can be integrated into an address, creating, well… an integrated address.

In [12]: ia = a.with_payment_id(0xfeedbadbeef)

In [13]: ia
Out[13]: ABySz66nm1QUhPiwoAbR2tXU9LJu2U6fJjcsv3rxgkVRWU6tEYcn6C1NBc7wqCv5V7NW3zeYuzKf6RGGgZTFTpVC623BT1ptXvVU2GjR1B

In [14]: ia.base_address()
Out[14]: A2GmyHHJ9jtUhPiwoAbR2tXU9LJu2U6fJjcsv3rxgkVRWU6tEYcn6C1NBc7wqCv5V7NW3zeYuzKf6RGGgZTFTpVC4QxAiAX

In [15]: ia.base_address() == a
Out[15]: True

In [16]: ia.payment_id()
Out[16]: 00000feedbadbeef

Since subaddresses have been introduced, merchants may generate a separate address for each order, user or any other object they expect the payments coming to. Therefore, it has been decided that subaddresses cannot generate integrated addresses.

In [17]: b.with_payment_id(0xfeedbadbeef)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
TypeError                                 Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-23-5a5811a6962a> in <module>()
----> 1 b.with_payment_id(0xfeedbadbeef)

~/devel/monero-python/monero/address.py in with_payment_id(self, _)
     99
    100     def with_payment_id(self, _):
--> 101         raise TypeError("SubAddress cannot be integrated with payment ID")
    102
    103

TypeError: SubAddress cannot be integrated with payment ID

The monero.numbers.PaymentID class validates payment IDs. It accepts both integer and hexadecimal string representations.

In [18]: from monero.numbers import PaymentID

In [19]: p1 = PaymentID(0xfeedbadbeef)

In [20]: p2 = PaymentID('feedbadbeef')

In [21]: p1 == p2
Out[21]: True

In [22]: p1.is_short()
Out[22]: True

In [23]: p3 = PaymentID('1234567890abcdef0')

In [24]: p3
Out[24]: 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890abcdef0

In [25]: p3.is_short()
Out[25]: False

Long payment IDs cannot be integrated:

In [26]: a.with_payment_id(p3)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
TypeError                                 Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-31-7098746f0b69> in <module>()
----> 1 a.with_payment_id(p3)

~/devel/monero-python/monero/address.py in with_payment_id(self, payment_id)
     73         payment_id = numbers.PaymentID(payment_id)
     74         if not payment_id.is_short():
---> 75             raise TypeError("Payment ID {0} has more than 64 bits and cannot be integrated".format(payment_id))
     76         prefix = 54 if self.is_testnet() else 19
     77         data = bytearray([prefix]) + self._decoded[1:65] + struct.pack('>Q', int(payment_id))

TypeError: Payment ID 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890abcdef0 has more than 64 bits and cannot be integrated

API reference

class monero.address.Address(addr, label=None)

Monero address.

Address of this class is the master address for a Wallet.

Parameters:
  • address – a Monero address as string-like object
  • label – a label for the address (defaults to None)
check_private_spend_key(key)

Checks if private spend key matches this address.

Return type:bool
check_private_view_key(key)

Checks if private view key matches this address.

Return type:bool
spend_key()

Returns public spend key.

Return type:str
view_key()

Returns public view key.

Return type:str
with_payment_id(payment_id=0)

Integrates payment id into the address.

Parameters:payment_id – int, hexadecimal string or PaymentID (max 64-bit long)
Return type:IntegratedAddress
Raises:TypeError if the payment id is too long
class monero.address.IntegratedAddress(address)

Monero integrated address.

A master address integrated with payment id (short one, max 64 bit).

base_address()

Returns the base address without payment id. :rtype: Address

payment_id()

Returns the integrated payment id.

Return type:PaymentID
class monero.address.SubAddress(addr, label=None)

Monero subaddress.

Any type of address which is not the master one for a wallet.

monero.address.address(addr, label=None)

Discover the proper class and return instance for a given Monero address.

Parameters:
  • addr – the address as a string-like object
  • label – a label for the address (defaults to None)
Return type:

Address, SubAddress or IntegratedAddress